Nuclear fusion exists. Boy, does it exist! From it is derived all the matter that exists today in the Universe and with this matter life and ourselves. But the fusion, in Nature, is uncontrolled. Stars are thermonuclear bombs that explode from time to time. The energy we receive is continuous, on average, from many of these discrete nuclear explosions.
Human beings want the energy of hydrogen fusion, but they want it controllable and controlled. The whole problem of energy from nuclear fusion is a control problem and a control problem on not only an atomic scale but on a nuclear scale.
The fusion process is a quantum process. At the quantum level, at the nuclear level, the Heisenberg Principle of Indeterminacy governs (which is nothing more than the recognition that we do not have smaller interactors, in mass, amount of movement and energy, than the interacting entities, and therefore all interaction at the atomic level it is random). According to this Principle, quantum processes are uncontrollable in detail. We are thus violating our theories on the atomic level: We want to develop absolute control of something that we have defined as essentially uncontrollable.
In an atom, we never know when an electron that has jumped out of orbit will return to its original orbit by emitting energy: The jump process is random, probably stimulated by some interaction with some other nearby electron. When a series of atoms receive electromagnetic radiation, we can never know which of them absorbs that radiation to jump out of orbit. Some photons interact with some electron, and others do not. The mechanics of interaction is intrinsically random.
For fusion it is about having deuterium and tritium nuclei moving with very high temperatures (very high speeds, that is, kinetic energies) in a concentrated flow, hoping that some of them collide intensely with each other and fusion will occur with the release of very high kinetic energy neutrons, again, which will heat the walls of the container.
Two problems appear: One, limiting the chain reaction so that all the plasma of protons and neutrons does not enter into reaction simultaneously, two, getting that no metallic atom coming from the walls enters the plasma. Having a lot of mass, a metallic atom instantly cools down such proton and neutron plasma and slows down fusion.
Now, how to control the movement of a single atom that cannot even be detected?
How to control the rhythm of the fusion?
In the stars, none of that matters. The process is uncontrolled, and countless random explosions are allowed. It is these explosions that keep the stars ‘burning’.
The idea of perfect control is a derivative of 400 years of deterministic physics, a determinism that permeates even random quantum mechanics.
The reality of nature is that it is uncontrollable. In that sense, nuclear fusion is a dream.
And it must be. In the history of science and technology, developments and applications have not taken over 10 years to achieve after the first discoveries. Nuclear fusion was discovered there in 1929, and the works for its control began in 1950. If, after 65 years, we have not achieved the result, the basic laws of nature go against it, as I point out here.